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DevOps: Kubernetes Federation on Google Cloud Platform

Let’s check out how we can launch Kubernetes Federation on Google Cloud Platform.

What is Kubernetes Federation? It allows you to combine several Kubernetes clusters and manage them through one Control Plane. With Federation, we’re able to synchronize resources in all clusters, reduce response time for queries from different parts of the world, and achieve high availability, as we place the clusters on different continents.

In our example, we will be using Google Kubernetes Engine.

DNS

Creating zone:

$ gcloud dns managed-zones create federation \
          --description "Kubernetes Federation Zone" \
            --dns-name federation.com

Checking:

$ gcloud dns managed-zones describe federation
More

Output:

creationTime: '2018-08-28T10:33:49.424Z'
description: Kubernetes Federation Zone
dnsName: federation.com.
id: '8875495119636580191'
kind: dns#managedZone
name: federation
nameServers:
- ns-cloud-e1.googledomains.com.
- ns-cloud-e2.googledomains.com.
- ns-cloud-e3.googledomains.com.
- ns-cloud-e4.googledomains.com.

Clusters

Creating a cluster in Asia:

$ gcloud container clusters create asia \
            --zone asia-southeast1-a \
            --scopes "cloud-platform,storage-ro,logging-write,monitoring-write,service-control,service-management,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/ndev.clouddns.readwrite"

Output:

Creating cluster asia...⠹
kubeconfig entry generated for asia.
NAME  LOCATION           MASTER_VERSION  MASTER_IP       MACHINE_TYPE   NODE_VERSION  NUM_NODES  STATUS
asia  asia-southeast1-a  1.9.7-gke.6     35.197.139.197  n1-standard-1  1.9.7-gke.6   3          RUNNING

Getting the connection credentials:

$ gcloud container clusters get-credentials asia \
            --zone asia-southeast1-a

Output:

Fetching cluster endpoint and auth data.
kubeconfig entry generated for asia.

Defining user policy:

$ kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding \
            --clusterrole cluster-admin --user $(gcloud config get-value account)

Output:

Fetching cluster endpoint and auth data.
kubeconfig entry generated for asia.

Creating a cluster in Europe:

$ gcloud container clusters create europe \
            --zone europe-west2-a \
            --scopes "cloud-platform,storage-ro,logging-write,monitoring-write,service-control,service-management,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/ndev.clouddns.readwrite"

Getting the connection credentials:

$ gcloud container clusters get-credentials europe \
            --zone europe-west2-a

Defining user policy:

$ kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding \
            --clusterrole cluster-admin --user $(gcloud config get-value account)

Creating a cluster in USA:

$ gcloud container clusters create america \
            --zone us-central1-a \
            --scopes "cloud-platform,storage-ro,logging-write,monitoring-write,service-control,service-management,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/ndev.clouddns.readwrite"

Getting the connection credentials:

$ gcloud container clusters get-credentials america \
            --zone us-central1-a

Defining user policy:

$ kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding \
            --clusterrole cluster-admin --user $(gcloud config get-value account)

Let’s do the same thing again for two more clusters in Europe and Asia:

$ gcloud container clusters create asia-2 \
            --zone asia-east1-a \
            --scopes "cloud-platform,storage-ro,logging-write,monitoring-write,service-control,service-management,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/ndev.clouddns.readwrite"
 
 
$ gcloud container clusters get-credentials asia-2 \
            --zone asia-east1-a
 
$ kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding \
            --clusterrole cluster-admin --user $(gcloud config get-value account)
$ gcloud container clusters create europe-2 \
            --zone europe-north1-a \
            --scopes "cloud-platform,storage-ro,logging-write,monitoring-write,service-control,service-management,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/ndev.clouddns.readwrite"
 
$ gcloud container clusters get-credentials europe-2 \
            --zone europe-north1-a 
 
$ kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding \
            --clusterrole cluster-admin --user $(gcloud config get-value account)

Checking after all the actions are completed:

$ gcloud container clusters list

Output:

NAME      LOCATION           MASTER_VERSION  MASTER_IP       MACHINE_TYPE   NODE_VERSION  NUM_NODES  STATUS
asia-2    asia-east1-a       1.9.7-gke.6     35.221.221.46   n1-standard-1  1.9.7-gke.6   3          RUNNING
asia      asia-southeast1-a  1.9.7-gke.6     35.197.139.197  n1-standard-1  1.9.7-gke.6   3          RUNNING
europe-2  europe-north1-a    1.9.7-gke.6     35.228.203.204  n1-standard-1  1.9.7-gke.6   3          RUNNING
europe    europe-west2-a     1.9.7-gke.6     35.242.178.241  n1-standard-1  1.9.7-gke.6   3          RUNNING
america   us-central1-a      1.9.7-gke.6     35.188.203.7    n1-standard-1  1.9.7-gke.6   3          RUNNING

Or in GCP console:

Federation

Federation Control Plane manages the state of all your clusters. The control panel can be placed inside one of your Kubernetes clusters.

Even if the Control Plane cluster does not work, the other clusters are independent, so they will continue to function until the control panel goes back online. You can manage clusters separately! This means that you do not need to worry about one point of failure.

Now let's see what contexts are used:

$ kubectl config get-contexts

Output:

          gke_federation_asia-east1-a_asia-2        gke_federation_asia-east1-a_asia-2        gke_federation_asia-east1-a_asia-2
*         gke_federation_europe-north1-a_europe-2   gke_federation_europe-north1-a_europe-2   gke_federation_europe-north1-a_europe-2

Kubernetes Federation uses the context name to create the Federation, but it must conform to the RFC1123 specification. It means that you need to rename the context. You can do this with the following commands:

$ kubectl config set-context asia \
   --cluster gke_federation_asia-southeast1-a_asia \
   --user gke_federation_asia-southeast1-a_asia
 
$ kubectl config delete-context \
            gke_federation_asia-southeast1-a_asia
 
$ kubectl config set-context europe \
   --cluster gke_federation_europe-west2-a_europe \
   --user gke_federation_europe-west2-a_europe
 
$ kubectl config delete-context \
            gke_federation_europe-west2-a_europe
 
$ kubectl config set-context america \
   --cluster gke_federation_us-central1-a_america \
   --user gke_federation_us-central1-a_america 
 
$ kubectl config delete-context \
            gke_federation_us-central1-a_america
 
$ kubectl config set-context asia-2 \
   --cluster gke_federation_asia-east1-a_asia-2 \
   --user gke_federation_asia-east1-a_asia-2
 
$ kubectl config delete-context \
            gke_federation_asia-east1-a_asia-2
 
$ kubectl config set-context europe-2 \
   --cluster gke_federation_europe-north1-a_europe-2 \
   --user gke_federation_europe-north1-a_europe-2
 
$ kubectl config delete-context \
            gke_federation_europe-north1-a_europe-2

Checking context:

$ kubectl config get-contexts

Output:

CURRENT   NAME       CLUSTER                                           AUTHINFO                                          NAMESPACE
          america    gke_federation_us-central1-a_america      gke_federation_us-central1-a_america
          asia       gke_federation_asia-southeast1-a_asia     gke_federation_asia-southeast1-a_asia
          asia-2     gke_federation_asia-east1-a_asia-2        gke_federation_asia-east1-a_asia-2
          europe     gke_federation_europe-west2-a_europe      gke_federation_europe-west2-a_europe
          europe-2   gke_federation_europe-north1-a_europe-2   gke_federation_europe-north1-a_europe-2

To create a Federation we will use Kubefed. But it only works on Linux, it won’t start on Mac right away, but we can fix this with the Docker.


For authorization in Kubernetes on Google Cloud, we use google sdk. -/.kube /config:

- name: gke_krusche-federation_asia-southeast1-a_asia
  user:
    auth-provider:
      config:
        access-token: ya29.GlwHBt-fKASzD91Uxp-mtfbMMHz94w
        cmd-args: config config-helper --format=json
        cmd-path: /Users/roman/work/google-cloud-sdk/bin/gcloud
        expiry: 2018-08-28 15:03:09
        expiry-key: '{.credential.token_expiry}'
        token-key: '{.credential.access_token}'
      name: gcp

In my case, the binary file is located in my home directory, and Kubefed uses the same configuration files. Therefore, we will mount the entire home directory in the Docker container:

 

Dockerfile:

FROM centos:7
 
COPY bin/kubefed /usr/local/bin
COPY repo/kubernetes.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
RUN mkdir -p /Users/roman \
    && yum install -y kubectl
 
ENV HOME /Users/roman
WORKDIR /Users/roman
 
ENTRYPOINT ["kubefed"]

Building Docker image:

$ docker build --no-cache --rm -t k8s/kubefed .

Defining alias:

alias kubefed='docker run -v "$HOME":/Users/roman k8s/kubefed'

Initializing Federation:

$ kubefed init kfed \
  --host-cluster-context=america \
  --dns-zone-name="federation.com." \
  --dns-provider="google-clouddns"

Output:

Creating a namespace federation-system for federation system components... done
Creating federation control plane service............. done
Creating federation control plane objects (credentials, persistent volume claim)... done
Creating federation component deployments... done
Updating kubeconfig... done
Waiting for federation control plane to come up................. done
Federation API server is running at: 104.154.131.222

Connecting clusters to the Federation Control Plane:

kubefed --context=kfed join asia \
  --cluster-context=asia \
  --host-cluster-context=america
 
kubefed --context=kfed join europe \
  --cluster-context=europe \
  --host-cluster-context=america
 
kubefed --context=kfed join america \
  --cluster-context=america \
  --host-cluster-context=america
 
kubefed --context=kfed join asia-2 \
  --cluster-context=asia-2 \
  --host-cluster-context=america
 
kubefed --context=kfed join europe-2 \
  --cluster-context=europe-2 \
  --host-cluster-context=america

Output:

cluster "asia" created
cluster "europe" created
cluster "america" created
cluster "asia-2" created
cluster "europe-2" created

Checking:

$ kubectl --context kfed get cluster

Output:

NAME       AGE
america    58s
asia       2m
asia-2     46s
europe     1m
europe-2   36s

Creating default namespace:

$ kubectl --context=kfed create ns default

Setting up and running the application

Creating a global static IP address:

$ gcloud compute addresses create ingress --global

Launching NGINX:

$ kubectl --context=kfed create deployment nginx --image=nginx:stable \
  && kubectl --context=kfed scale deployment nginx --replicas=12

Checking:

Creating NGINX Service:

$ kubectl --context=kfed create service nodeport nginx \
  --tcp=80:80 --node-port=30036

Creating file ingress.yaml:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: nginx
  annotations:
    kubernetes.io/ingress.global-static-ip-name: ingress
spec:
  backend:
    serviceName: nginx
    servicePort: 80

Let’s deploy ingress:

kubectl --context=kfed create -f ingress.yaml

Ingress may not be created due to bugs 242 and 245.



In that case, we’ll create the balancer manually:

If everything’s ok, our NGINX should open.


Now let’s write a simple website with a world map to check the response of the clusters. You can check external IP from containers, but all of the Google IPs are American, so we’ll take the region from the cluster’s name.


Creating location.php:

<?php
$a = $_ENV[MY_NODE_NAME];
if (strpos($a, 'asia') !== false) {
  $continent = 'asia';
  $image = 'asia.png';
} elseif (strpos($a, 'europe') !== false) {
  $continent = 'europe';
  $image = 'europe.png';
} elseif (strpos($a, 'america') !== false) {
  $continent = 'North America';
  $image = 'america.png';
}
?>

Dockerfile:

FROM php:7.0-apache-stretch
ADD data /data
RUN cp -R /data/* /var/www/html \
    && chown www-data -R /var/www/html/

Building image:

docker build --no-cache --rm -t wacken/location:nodename .

Creating deployment.yaml:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec:
  replicas: 20
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: nginx
    spec:
      containers:
      - env:
        - name: MY_NODE_NAME
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: spec.nodeName
        name: nginx
        image: "wacken/location:nodename"
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        ports:
          - containerPort: 80

Applying:

$ kubectl --context=kfed apply -f deployment.yaml

Checking

Now let’s open our balancer:

That’s it! Hurray!

 

So now we know how to setup Kubernetes Federation to reduce response time and ensure high availability of services. For more on Kubernetes fine-tuning, check out our case study about microservice architecture for radiology as a service app or previous posts How to Setup Kubernetes cluster on AWS and Security and Kubernetes.

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Web,Other
Dedicated Teams for Web Development: Choice Criteria to be Checked
Web,Outsourcing,Testing
QA for CxOs: How to Hire and Outsource
Web
Three Authentication Approaches to Keep Your Clients Safe
DevOps,Outsourcing,Other
How to setup Kubernetes cluster on AWS
Web,Mobile,Outsourcing,Other
All You Wanted to Know About Chatbot Platforms
Web,Outsourcing
Why It’s Better to Use Vue.js than Angular and React in 2018
DevOps
What to Choose: NFS or CEPH?
Web
Debunking imaginary shortcomings of cross-platform frameworks
Web
Angular 2.0 vs Angular 1.4. What fits you best?
Other,Marketing
How to Become a Leader in Your Market
Web
A secret formula of an agile dream team
DevOps
DevOps with Puppet: Tips on Setting it up for Configuring Servers
Outsourcing
SCALED AGILE FRAMEWORKS: YOUR COMPLETE GUIDE TO WHICH, WHY AND HOW
Web
4 Time-Saving Ways to Test Your Cross Platform Mobile App
Marketing
Аudience-based Marketing
Web,Other
GoLang: Features, Pros and Cons
Web,Outsourcing,Other
Golang vs. Node.js
Web,Mobile,Back-end,Amazon Web Services
Serverless Architecture for Modern Apps: Stacks Providers & Caveats
Web,Outsourcing
Angular 7 vs React
Other
The Power of the Holistic Business Analysis
Web,Mobile,Outsourcing
Web-Anwendungen ziehen mit Mobile-Apps gleich
Web
Centralized Logging with Logstash, Elasticsearch & Kibana
Web,Outsourcing
Node.js vs. Angular.js – Two Sides of the Same Coin
DevOps,Outsourcing,Other
ROCKET.CHAT as an internal messaging system and helpdesk platform
Web,Other
How to Make Your Web Solution Rock: 7 Areas to Check
Web,Our cases
White Label: A Customized Software Solution from a Business and Tech Perspective
Web
What's New in React 16.3.0 - 16.4.2: Features Overview
Web
Agile and DevOps are Key Drivers of Digital Transformation
Other
I’m Tired of Blockchain Hype, Are You?
Web,Amazon Web Services
Monolith, Microservices, Serverless... Are We in the Middle of the Way?
Web
Technologies that Foster Digital Transformation
Web
Advanced Technologies for Marketing Automation
Web
Web App Security 101: How to Defend Against a Brute Force Attack
Web,Outsourcing
Angular 6 vs. Ember 3
Mobile
Reasons to believe in Ionic hybrid app
Web,Outsourcing,Other
JavaScript & WebSockets: How to Build Real-Time Applications
Web
A Guidance for Keeping Your Web Development Project Within the Budget: Three Key Pillars
Web,Outsourcing,Other
Angular vs. React vs. Vue – Let the Fight Start!
Web
All You Need to Know About Web App Security Now
Outsourcing,Other
Hybrid, SaaS+PaaS, IoT: Cloud Trends to Catch in 2018
Outsourcing,Other
How to Ramp up Your Team Wisely
Web
Node.js 10.0.0: Everyone’s Favorite Got Even Better
Outsourcing,Testing
Die Rolle des QS-Teams in Software-Projekten
Other
Don’t Treat Me Like a Fool: The worst thing you can do for your business
Web,Mobile,Back-end,Amazon Web Services
Why Enterprises Choose Serverless Architecture
DevOps,Outsourcing,Amazon Web Services
Information Security with AWS DevOps
DevOps
Hashicorp in Kubernetes: The short guide for Consul & Vault
Web
SEO Tips & Tricks for Single Page Web Applications
Outsourcing
The BPM in the Microservice Environment
DevOps
How We Use Ansіble for Configuration of Our Environments
Mobile
Native or Hybrid Apps: A Quick Comparison
Web
K&C insights: how to make your workflow work for you
DevOps
Docker: Virtualize Your Development Environment Right
Web,Outsourcing,Amazon Web Services
DEBUGGING AWS LAMBDA FUNCTIONS
Web,Outsourcing,Testing
Web App Security 101: Keep Calm and Do Threat Modeling
Web
Scaling software solutions - how it works
Web
JQuery vs. Angular: Ad Astra per Aspera
Other
How to Convert Your Business to an Amazon-Style Market Leader
Web,Outsourcing
How to Control Agile Development: Progress and Costs
DevOps,Other
Security in Kubernetes and How Companies Can Benefit from It
Web
Fintech Apps - A Lucrative Solution for Customers and Businesses Alike
Web
How to Motivate Your Dedicated Team to Work with Legacy Projects
DevOps
Setting Up: Traefik Balancer In Rancher Cloud
DevOps
Kubernetes backup with Heptio Ark
DevOps
Use case: how to build and run Docker containers with NVIDIA GPUs
Other
Ember, jQuery, Angular, React, Vue: What to Choose?
Web,Outsourcing
Angular 6 Will Be A Hit
Web,Other
SSR or CSR for Progressive Web App
Testing
What Is Quality Assurance and Why You Need It Immediately
Web,Outsourcing
ANGULAR 6 versus REACT 16.3
Outsourcing,Other
Fortschritt und Kosten im Griff: agile Software-Entwicklung unter kontrollierten Bedingungen
Web,Outsourcing,Testing
Sicherheit für Web-Anwendungen - dank Threat Modeling
Web,DevOps,Outsourcing
DevOps als DevSecOps – Integrierter Schutz vor Bedrohungen ohne Termin- und Budgetüberschreitung
Web,Other
Progressive Web Apps and Why You May Need Them
Web
Cost efficient technologies
DevOps
How to Build a Rancher & Docker Based Cloud
Outsourcing,Testing
How the QA Team Tests Your Project